We all know that breakfast is “the most important meal of the day” but did you know that the quality of your breakfast can also make a big impact on your hunger levels for remainder of the day. If your idea of breakfast is a bowl of Cheerios, a cup of fruit, or a bagel you may find yourself hungry later in the day and therefore, unable lose weight.
According to new research from the University of Missouri, protein may be magic ingredient to ward off hunger and manage your weight.
Researcher, Heather Leidy from the University of Missouri has found that eating a healthy breakfast, especially one high in protein, increases satiety and reduces hunger throughout the day. In addition, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the researchers found that eating a protein-rich breakfast reduces the brain signals controlling food motivation and reward-driven eating behavior.
In the study, Leidy assessed physiological hunger and satiety by measuring perceived appetite sensations and hormonal markers in combination with psychological reward-driven motivation to eat, using fMRI to identify brain activation in specific regions related to food motivation and reward.
The researchers decided to target ‘breakfast-skipping’ teens for two reasons, Leidy said. First, breakfast skipping has been strongly associated with unhealthy snacking, overeating (especially at night), weight gain and obesity. Second, approximately 60 percent of adolescents skip breakfast on a daily basis.
For three weeks, the teens either continued to skip breakfast or consumed 500-calorie breakfast meals containing cereal and milk (which contained normal quantities of protein) or higher protein meals prepared as Belgium waffles, syrup and yogurt. At the end of each week, the volunteers completed appetite and satiety questionnaires. Right before lunch, the volunteers completed a brain scan, using fMRI, to identify brain activation responses.
Both breakfast meals led to increased fullness and reduced the level of hunger throughout the morning, when compared to those who skipped breakfast. fMRI results showed that brain activation in regions controlling food motivation and reward was reduced prior to lunch time when breakfast was consumed in the morning. The higher protien breakfast led to even greater changes in appetite, satiety and reward-driven eating behavior compared to the normal protein breakfast.
“Incorporating a healthy breakfast containing protein-rich foods can be a simple strategy for people to stay satisfied longer, and therefore, be less prone to snacking,” Leidy said. “People reach for convenient snack foods to satisfy their hunger between meals, but these foods are almost always high in sugar and fat and add a substantial amount of calories to the diet. These findings suggest that a protein-rich breakfast might be an effective strategy to improve appetite control and prevent overeating in young people.”
Start your morning with two eggs or egg whites on whole grain toast, Greek yogurt with fresh fruit and unsweetened coconut, oatmeal with chopped nuts and fresh berries, or a fruit/veggie smoothie with hemp protein and flax. Aim for at least 15-20 grams of protein and 5-10 grams of fiber to kick start your day and keep you satisfied until lunch time.
Heather J. Leidy, Rebecca J. Lepping, Cary R. Savage, Corey T. Harris.” Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli After a Normal vs. Higher Protein Breakfast in Breakfast-Skipping Teens: A Pilot fMRI Study.” Obesity, 5 May 2011.